Baking Glossary, Baking Terms, Baking Terminologies
Baking Glossary. A collection of short definitions for the most common terms used in baking.
I have compiled a list of baking glossary that might be useful for you to understand the terms better. I have taken them from homebaking.org and indusladies.com.
An amber, caloric liquid sweetener, with a low glycemic index, that is made from the core of the succulent agave plant available in two distinct varieties: Light and Amber.
All Purpose Flour
Wheat flour milled from hard wheat or a blend of soft and hard wheat. All-purpose flour may be bleached or unbleached and may be enriched with four vitamins (niacin, riboflavin, folic acid, and thiamin) and iron. All-purpose flour may be used in a wide variety of home baked goods, such as cookies, quick breads and some yeast breads.
The term given to the process whereby the pastry case is partially or completely pre-baked. The pastry case is lined with greaseproof paper and weighted down with dried pulses to prevent the pastry from rising.
- Brown sugar: Sugar crystals contained in a molasses syrup with natural flavor and color components.
- Dark and light brown sugars may be substituted according to individual preferences for product color or taste.
Baking pan Available in a variety of shapes and sizes for baking specific cakes, cookies, biscuits, breads, pies, and specialty goods. Most pans sold today are made from light- to heavy-gauge steel, except for two-layer, insulated baking pans, which are heavy-gauge aluminum. Most test kitchens use midgauge aluminum pans to formulate standards for baking time, temperature, and even baking/browning.
A mixture of baking soda and dry acid. When mixed with a liquid such as batter, the dry acid and baking soda react together to release carbon dioxide. Work quickly once you have added liquid to the dry ingredients, as carbon dioxide escapes quickly.
Also known as bicarbonate of soda or sometimes simply as soda. When mixed with an acid ingredient and a liquid, it releases carbon dioxide, which causes a batter to rise.
Baking tray is a flat tray which can withstand the heat of the oven and is used to bake biscuits, cookies etc.
May be active dry (dissolve according to package directions before adding to other ingredients), instant, fast-rising, fresh or cream.
This is a kitchen brush that is used to apply a liquid (wash) over the top of any baked item, before, during, or after the baking process.
Beaters or Whisks
Beater is an equipment used for beating, refining and mixing pulps. Whereas whisk is a tool with a multiple thin-wire base. A mixing tool designed such so that its many strands of looped wire make it effective for beating.
In bread baking the word bloom refers to the nice attractive brownish colour of the crust on a perfectly baked loaf of bread.
Generally used to line tins while baking ensures that the cake does not stick to tin.
Can be used as a separator plate between cake tiers instead of the usual plastic plates or as the board on which to decorate and serve your cake. Cake boards can be made of cardboard. They are cut to suit the shape of the cake and decorative gold or silver aluminum foils are used to cover the cardboard. They are readily available.
Cake tins are usually made of aluminum. They come in various shapes and sizes.
Also called powdered sugar. Indicates the fineness of the powdered sugar. Four X is slightly finer, but both may be used interchangeably. It does not affect whether sifting is required – go by the recipe’s directions.
To create ridges around the edges of pie by pressing with your fingers and tapping with the back of a knife blade or a fork.
Cutters (Cookie, Biscuit & Pastry Cutters)
These are available in different shapes and sizes and are used to make the above things.
A flour and water mixture, often with other ingredients, worked until it is firm enough to hold its shape but malleable enough to mould by hand.
Dropping Consistency Dough
The term used to describe the necessary consistency of a cake mixture before it is baked.
Will be 1.5% to 4% of the weight of the total flour in a formula. (Bakers Percent) TIP: Always use a thermometer to measure liquid temperature before adding it to or with theyeast. Yeast will grow slowly under refrigeration 33 to 40º F. more actively at room temperatures, does not die if frozen, but will die in temperatures above 140º F.
(professionals use an instant variety—may be mixed directly with all ingredients and ice-cold to 130º F. water used). Also called “bread machine” yeast on some packages.
The elastic, expandable structure in a dough or batter capable of trapping gas, expanding and when baked becoming part of the structure of baked products. Wheat flour simple proteins (peptides), glutenin and gliadin, combine with water when stirred, mixed and kneaded to align and form gluten’s long elastic structure. Gluten containing grains are wheat, rye, triticale, emmer wheat and barley.
Fine or extra-fine white sugar crystals. Often referred to as “white sugar” in home baking.
To turn the oven controls to the desired temperature, allowing the oven to heat thoroughly before placing food. Heating takes about ten minutes.
An icing set has a set of metal tubes and pipes with detachable numbered nozzles ranging from thin, plain writing nozzles to star or ribbon nozzles. Icing bags can be made at home with butter paper. This is convenient and less expensive.
To soak cake with a flavoured sugar syrup or liqueur usually applied with a pastry brush.
A pressing and folding technique used to make dough firm and smooth. Kneading stretches the gluten in flour, providing elasticity.
To cause batter or dough to rise, usually by means of a chemical leavening agent. This process may occur before or during baking.
To partly mix two different colors of cake batter or icing so that the colors are in decorative swirls.
Sweetened almond paste made in confections.
Stiffly beaten egg white and granulated sugar that may be soft or baked hard. Sugar must be beaten into the egg whites one tablespoon at a time to dissolve and produce a smooth meringue.
A variety of bowls that are usually used for kneading dough, whisking cream, eggs, mixing batter etc. They can be easily procured from the market.
Is an artist’s knife with a thin, dull, flexible blade, used for mixing, scrapping or applying paint. It can be made of plastic or metal. In baking it is used to smoothen and spread icing evenly.
A pastry brush is one of those tools for which there is no substitute. If you need to brush an egg wash over a pie crust, a knife or spatula won’t do. It should have soft, pliable boar bristles that are firmly anchored into the sturdy black nylon handle. The handle has a small rest, which keeps the brush elevated so the bristles stay clean and untainted. Whatever kind of wash your recipe calls for, this brush will evenly paint your pastry or crust. It’s also great for spreading marinades, glazes, or barbecue sauce on meat.
About 98 percent sucrose and tan or brown in appearance; it is a coarse, granulated solid obtained on evaporation of clarified sugar cane juice. It is not considered fit for direct use as food or a food ingredient by the USDA.
Grayish, chunky, unrefined salt mined from halite; not recommended for table or cooking use; used most often for freezing ice cream.
Whole grain oats or groats steamed and flattened with heavy rollers; quick-cooking rolled oats are cut into smaller pieces after rolling flat in thin flakes; other grains may be rolled
too—barley, rye, wheat and more.
Preferably a wooden one, it is used to roll out dough.
In baking, ingredients at room temperature may be 62° to 70° F.
Sea (solar) Salt
Salt captured by the evaporation of sea water; the type used down through the ages.
To add herbs, spices, citrus zest, extracts or other ingredients to food for flavoring.
Regular salt combined with a flavoring (Ex:onion, garlic, celery).
One of the first “convenience mixes,” selfrising flour is a blend of all-purpose flour, baking powder, and salt. When self-rising flour is used in a standard flour recipe,the baking powder and salt are then omitted. Approximate equivalent = 1 cup all-purpose flour, 1½ teaspoons baking powder, and ½ teaspoon salt.
Baking chocolate that contains between 15 percent and 35 percent chocolate liquor, cocoa, butter, sugar, lecithin, and vanilla. It may be used interchangeably in some recipes that call for bittersweet or sweet chocolate, but is not interchangeable with milk chocolate.
To remove the yolk from the white of the egg.
A specific amount of food adequate for nutrition management and health.
Shaping or Molding
Follow recipe directions for how to divide and shape dough (sheet dough, sticks, loaves, twist, braid, pretzel, smooth ball, etc.)
A type of flat cake baked in a sheet pan, frosted and cut-into squares or triangles.
A fine meshed sifter that removes unwanted lumps or grains from any dry ingredient like sugar or flour.
A thin long metal pin used to test if the cakes are baked completely.
To allow frozen food, such as butter, margarine or cream cheese, to stand at room temperature until they are no longer hard. Generally this will take thirty to sixty minutes.
These are high walled dishes, which have to be prepared beforehand by tying paper “collars” around them to keep the soufflés from overflowing.
Is a small implement with a broad, flat, flexible blade that is used to mix ingredients and also plasters and similar substances. A wooden spatula can be used to fold in ingredients while a plastic spatula can be used to mix butter, flour or to scrape the insides of a bowl while mixing. Artists’ spatulas are usually finer and more flexible, while cement spatulas are stouter and stiffer.
Also known as sweetleaf; a naturally occurring sweetener native to Central and South America; 400 times sweeter than sugar.
Stir To combine ingredients with a circular or “figure 8” motion until they are of a uniform consistency.
Also called granulated salt, it is produced by boiling and evaporation of brine. It may be iodized and contains anti-caking agents.
A high-sided, drum-shaped mould that can taper toward the bottom. The food baked in the mould is usually a custard-based dish. It is un-moulded before serving.
Raw sugar refined to a light tan color by washing in a centrifuge under sanitary conditions. Surface molasses is removed in the washing process and is closer to refined sugar than raw.
Flour that is bleached naturally as it ages; no maturing agents are used in the milling process. It may be used interchangeably with bleached flours and has no nutritive differences.
A word to describe breads, cakes, or other baked goods that do not use a leavening agent, such as baking powder, baking soda, yeast, or cream of tartar.
Refers to vegetable oils that are fluid at room temperature or the fats in plant-based foods such as nuts, seeds, avocados, olives.
Beating a food lightly and rapidly with a mixer, whisk or beater to incorporate air and increase volume.
To beat ingredients together, using a wire whip or whisk, until well blended.
Flour produced from the whole kernel of wheat. Also called graham flour. It is usually produced in flour mills but may be ground in a mill using a stone grinding process.
Used for cooling baked goods, wire racks allow air to surround the food on all sides, making cooling quicker and preventing moisture build-up on the bottom of baked goods.
Baker’s yeast (differs from Brewer’s yeast) refers to a single-celled fungi in the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which ferments sugar. The by-products of this fermentation are principally carbon dioxide and alcohol. The carbon dioxide raises or expands the bread dough.
The amount of product obtained as a result of a given amount of ingredients.
The fragrant, flavorful, thin, outer skin of citrus fruit which is removed with a citrus zester, vegetable peeler, or paring knife and used to contribute flavor to baked goods.